Milli idman növü

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Milli idman növü və ya milli əyləncə — hər hansı xalqın və ya ölkənin mədədniyyətinə xas olan idman növü. Bəzi idman növləri de fakto, bəzi idman növləri isə de yure milli idman növü hesab olunur. Məsələn, kriket de fakto ABŞ və İngiltərədə milli idman növü, lakros və buzüstü xokkey isə de yure Kanadanın milli idman növü hesab olunur. Milli idman növlərinin hər hansı ölkədə lazımı səviyyədə oynanılmaya bilər, sadəcə həmin ölkənin mədəniyyətində əhəmiyyətli rol oynaması kifayətdir.

De yure milli idman növləri[redaktə | əsas redaktə]

Ölkə İdman İl
Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan Otüstü xokkey 1948[1]
Flag of Argentina.svg Argentina Pato 1953[2]
Flag of the Bahamas.svg Baham adaları Şlyup 1993[3]
Flag of Bangladesh.svg Banqladeş Kabaddi 1972[4]
Flag of Brazil.svg Braziliya Kapoeyra 1972[5]
Flag of Canada.svg Kanada Lakros (yay), Buzüstü xokkey (qış) 1994[6]
Flag of Chile.svg Çili Çili radeosu 1962[7]
Flag of Colombia.svg Kolumbiya Texo 2000[8]
Flag of Iran.svg İran Varzeşi Bastani, Güləş 1976[9]
Flag of Mexico.svg Meksika Çarreriya 1933[10]
Flag of the Philippines.svg Filippin Eskrima 2009[11]
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg Puerto-Riko Paso Fino 1966[12]
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg Şri-Lanka Voleybol 1991[13]
Flag of Nepal.svg Nepal Dandi Biyo 1973[14]
Flag of Uruguay.svg Uruqvay Destrezas Kriolyas[15] 2006[16]

De fakto milli idman növləri[redaktə | əsas redaktə]

Ölkə İdman
Flag of Afghanistan.svg Əfqanıstan Buzkaşi][17]
Flag of Anguilla.svg Angilya Yaxt yarışı[18]
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg Antiqua və Barbuda Kriket[19]
Flag of Barbados.svg Barbados Kriket[20]
Flag of Bermuda.svg Bermud adaları Kriket[21]
Flag of Bhutan.svg Butan Oxatma[22]
Flag of Canada.svg Kanada Buzüstü xokkey[23][24][25]
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Çexiya Buzüstü xokkey
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg Dominikan Respublikası Beyzbol[26]
Flag of England.svg İngiltərə Kriket[27]
Flag of Estonia.svg Estoniya Basketbol[28]
Flag of Finland.svg Finlandiya Pesapallo[29]
Flag of Georgia.svg Gürcüstan Reqbi birliyi[30]
Flag of Grenada.svg Qranada Kriket[31]
Flag of Guyana.svg Qayana Kriket[32]
Flag of Haiti.svg Haiti Futbol[33]
Flag of Hungary.svg Macarıstan Futbol[34] və ya Su polosu[35]
Flag of Israel.svg İsrail Futbol[36]
Flag of Ireland.svg İrlandiya Qal oyunları[37][38][39]
Flag of Jamaica.svg Yamayka Kriket[40]
Flag of Japan.svg Yaponiya Sumo[41]
Flag of South Korea.svg Cənubi Koreya Taekvando[42]
Flag of Latvia.svg Latviya Basketbol (yay), Buzüstü xokkey (qış),[43]
Flag of Lithuania.svg Litva Basketbol[44][45]
Flag of Madagascar.svg Madaqaskar Reqbi birliyi[46][47]
Flag of Mauritius.svg Mavriki Futbol[48]
Flag of Mongolia.svg Monqolustan Oxatma, Monqol güləşi, Atçılıq[49][50]
Flag of New Zealand.svg Yeni Zellandiya Reqbi birliyi[51]
Flag of Norway.svg Norveç Xizək yarışı[52][53]
Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan Otüstü xokkey[54][55]
Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg Papua-Yeni Qvineya Reqbi birliyi[56][57]
Flag of Peru (state).svg Peru Paleta Fronton[58]
Flag of Poland.svg Polşa Futbol[59]
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg Puerto-Riko Beyzbol
Flag of Romania.svg Rumıniya Oyna[60]
Flag of Russia.svg Rusiya Bandi[59]
Flag of Serbia.svg Serbiya Banatske Şore[61]
Flag of Scotland.svg Şotlandiya Qolf[62]
Flag of Slovenia.png Sloveniya Alp xizəkçiliyi[63][63]
Flag of Turkey.svg Türkiyə Yağlı güləş[64] & Cirit[65]
Flag of the Turks and Caicos Islands.svg Törks və Kaykos adaları Kriket[66]
Flag of the United States.svg ABŞ Beyzbol[67][68][69]
Flag of Venezuela.svg Venesuela Beyzbol[70][71]
Flag of Wales.svg Uels Reqbi birliyi[72]

İstinadlar[redaktə | əsas redaktə]

  1. "Pakistan". http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Field_hockey.
  2. "Argentina Decree Nº 17468 of 16 September 1953". Federación Argentina de Pato. http://www.pato.org.ar/es/el-deporte/decreto-n-17-468/. İstifadə tarixi: 16 October 2012.
  3. Craton, Michael (1998). Islanders in the Stream: A History of the Bahamian People. University of Georgia Press, 471. ISBN 0-8203-2284-9.
  4. "Banglapedia: Kabadi". Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. http://www.a-bangladesh.com/HT/K_0001.htm. İstifadə tarixi: 21 July 2008. "Ha-du-du was given the name kabadi and the status of National Game in 1972." [ölü keçid]
  5. Lowell, John (1992). Ring of Liberation: Deceptive Discourse in Brazilian Capoeira. University of Chicago Press, 61. ISBN 0-226-47683-9.
  6. National Sports of Canada Act S.C. 1994, c. 16, Justice Laws Website, National Government of Canada
  7. Moreira Recchione, Alberto (December 2007). "La Medialuna: un edificio para Chile" (Spanish) Nəşr edən: University of Chile. Revista de urbanismo (17). ISSN 0717-5051. İstifadə tarixi: 14 July 2008. “A reconocerse, en 1962, el rodeo como deporte nacional y oficial [10 de enero de 1962, oficio N°269 del Consejo Nacional de Deportes y Comité Olímpico de Chile]”
  8. "Colombia Law 613 of 4 September 2000". Global Legal Information Network. http://www.glin.gov/view.action?glinID=73716. İstifadə tarixi: 14 July 2008.
  9. [1]
  10. "La Charrería "Nuestro Deporte Nacional"" (Spanish). Mexican Department of Tourism. http://www.sectur.gob.mx/wb2/sectur/sect_Celebracion_del_Dia_Mundial_del_Turismo. İstifadə tarixi: 14 July 2008. "El año de 1933 fue muy importante, ya que el general Abelardo L. Rodríguez, emite un decreto presidencial, dando a la Charrería el título de único Deporte Nacional."
  11. "Republic Act No. 9850: An Act declaring Arnis as the national martial art and sport of the Philippines". http://www.filipiniana.net/ArtifactView.do?artifactID=L20100000001&query=null&page=1. İstifadə tarixi: 26 June 2010.
  12. "Puerto Rico Act 64 of 2000, S.B. 1856" (PDF). Office of Legislative Services of Puerto Rico. 11 April 2000. p. 1. http://www.oslpr.org/download/en/2000/0064.pdf. İstifadə tarixi: 14 July 2008. "In 1966, the Public Parks and Recreation Administration and the Puerto Rico Olympic Committee awarded official recognition of the “paso fino” horse riding sport as the autochthonous sport of Puerto Rico."
  13. Fernando, Leslie (3 June 2005). "Sponsors President's Gold Cup tourney: Dialog assures future of VB". Daily News (Sri Lanka). http://www.dailynews.lk/2005/06/03/spo01.htm. İstifadə tarixi: 14 July 2008. "Way back in 1991 volleyball was declared as the national sport of Sri Lanka but it was only name sake."
  14. Fernando, Leslie (3 June 2005). "Sponsors President's Gold Cup tourney: Dialog assures future of VB". Daily News (Nepal). http://www.dailynews.lk/2005/06/03/spo01.htm. İstifadə tarixi: 14 July 2008. "Way back in 1973 Dandi Biyo was declared as the national sport of Nepal but it was only name sake."
  15. Aeberhard, Danny (2001). The Rough Guide to Argentina, 198. ISBN 1-85828-569-0. “"displays of traditional gaucho skills (destrezas criollas)"”
  16. "Uruguay Law 17958 of 21 April 2006". Global Legal Information Network. http://www.glin.gov/view.action?glinID=177996. İstifadə tarixi: 14 July 2008.
  17. "Buzkashi: The National Game of Afghanis". Embassy of Afghanistan, Canberra. http://www.afghanembassy.net/buz.php. İstifadə tarixi: 21 July 2008.
  18. "Boat Racing Season Officially Opens". The Anguillian. 3 March 2007. http://www.festival.ai/article/articleview/4525/1/127/. İstifadə tarixi: 21 July 2008. "Director of Sports, Alkins Rogers, [...] reported that the Government recognizes boat racing as the national sport of Anguilla and was giving financial resources for its development."
  19. "Antiguans and Barbudans". everyculture.com. http://www.everyculture.com/wc/Afghanistan-to-Bosnia-Herzegovina/Antiguans-and-Barbudans.html. İstifadə tarixi: 10 July 2008. "Cricket, a left-over from the British rule, is the national sport of Antigua and Barbuda."
  20. "Barbados: Sports". Government of Barbados. http://www.barbados.gov.bb/sports.htm. İstifadə tarixi: 21 July 2008. "The national sport of Barbados is cricket"
  21. Luke, Will (March 2007). "Cricket by association". The Wisden Cricketer. http://content-www.cricinfo.com/wisdencricketer/content/story/281649.html. İstifadə tarixi: 21 July 2008. "Bermuda are one of the few sides who count cricket as a national sport."
  22. "National Symbols". Bhutan Portal. Government of Bhutan. http://www.bhutan.gov.bt/government/abt_nationalsymbols.php. İstifadə tarixi: 21 July 2008. "National Game: The national sport of Bhutan is archery."
  23. Gonzalez Echevarria, Roberto (1999). "A Cuban Belle Époque", The Pride of Havana: A History of Cuban Baseball. Oxford University Press, 76. ISBN 0-19-514605-0. “Baseball is so ingrained in Cuba that it has thrived as the "national sport" through forty years of a bitterly anti-American revolution.”
  24. Mckinley, James C., Jr (26 March 1999). "Baseball; Clash of Cultures, Pride and Passion". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9501E4DE1530F935A15750C0A96F958260. İstifadə tarixi: 24 July 2008. "Most Cubans, after all, consider baseball to be their national sport, a game entwined in history with their struggle for independence from Spain and the birth of their nation."
  25. Castro, Fidel (13 August 1999). "Speech at a meeting with Pan American Games delegation members". cuba.cu. http://www.cuba.cu/gobierno/discursos/1999/ing/f130899i.html. İstifadə tarixi: 24 July 2008. "the game that [...] is [...] our national sport [...] I am talking of baseball"
  26. "Some facts about the Dominican Republic". Embassy of the Dominican Republic, Washington. http://www.domrep.org/kids.html. İstifadə tarixi: 22 July 2008. "Baseball is the Dominican Republic’s national sport."
  27. Hughes, Simon (9 April 2009). "Cricket losing status as national sport". The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/cricket/5132934/Cricket-losing-status-as-national-sport.html.
  28. (2007) Lonely Planet Eastern Europe, 9, Lonely Planet, 319. “Basketball is the unofficial national sport”
  29. "About Finland: General information: Sports". Embassy of Finland, Washington. 11 June 2007. http://www.finland.org/doc/en/about/general/sports.asp. İstifadə tarixi: 21 July 2008. "the national sport, “pesäpallo”" [ölü keçid]
  30. There is far more to savour in European rugby union than just the Six Nations The Guardian
  31. "Batting For Grenada". Grenada Life. Grenada Board of Tourism. March 2007. pp. 38. http://azzurracastlegrenada.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=32&Itemid=69. İstifadə tarixi: 21 July 2008. "in the first Grenada Cricket Classics [, h]eroes such as Sir Viv Richards, Joel Garner and Curtley Ambrose came together to promote what is considered by many to be the national sport in Grenada."
  32. "Games". Guyana Tourism Authority. Arxivləşdirilib: [2] saytından 6 June 2008 tarixində. https://web.archive.org/web/20080606075705/http://guyana-tourism.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=96&Itemid=178. İstifadə tarixi: 21 July 2008. "Cricket lovely Cricket! One cannot miss out on Guyana’s national sport without participating in a game of cricket while in Guyana."
  33. Graves, Kerry A. (2002). "Haiti". p. 57. . https://books.google.com/books?id=FD2Bt_rt4u4C&pg=PA57&lpg=PA57&dq=national+coat+of+arms+haiti+tree&source=bl&ots=aR6SO5nzi1&sig=dS0l6GO5COiJWVy5_ajHc0ygOJU&hl=en&sa=X&ei=tyJFVcDULNijyASl2oHwBg&ved=0CFYQ6AEwCw#v=onepage&q=national%20coat%20of%20arms%20haiti%20tree&f=false. İstifadə tarixi: 2 May 2015.
  34. Rinehart, Robert E. (2007). East Plays West: Sport and the Cold War (London/New York: Routledge): p. 50. . https://books.google.com/books?id=qmjLR5YyUhEC&pg=PA49&dq=Hungary+fencing+national+sport&hl=en&sa=X&ei=sRXtU9I2g8aLAsPkgPAN&ved=0CD8Q6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=even%20%20though%20soccer%20football%20was%20and%20is%20considered%20the%20Hungarian%20national%20pastime&f=false.
  35. (2014) Contemporary Sport Management, 5th, Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics, 257. ISBN 9781450469654.
  36. "Football in Israel". AsiaRooms. 21 February 2011. http://www.asiarooms.com/en/travel-guide/israel/sports-in-israel/football-in-israel.html. İstifadə tarixi: 24 February 2012. "The popularity of Football in Israel is sky-high and is the most popular sport of the nation by a distance. Football in Israel is the unofficial national sport of the nation and developed as an organized sport in the country during the period when the British controlled the administration or was the days of the British Mandate."
  37. "RTÉ Secures Comprehensive GAA Championship Coverage Until 2010". RTÉ Online. 19 February 2008. http://www.rte.ie/about/pressreleases/2008/0219/gaachampionship2010.html. İstifadə tarixi: 29 April 2009. "Today's announcement ensures that the public will enjoy quality coverage of our national games across all of RTÉ's media platforms."
  38. "Adjournment Matters. - Eurathlon Programme.". Seanad Éireann. 22 November 1995. pp. Volume 145. http://historical-debates.oireachtas.ie/S/0145/S.0145.199511220006.html. İstifadə tarixi: 29 April 2009.
  39. Farrelly, Hugh (15 September 2009). "The most progressive team in Ireland". Scrum.com. http://www.espnscrum.com/scrum/rugby/story/102547.html. İstifadə tarixi: 17 September 2009. "It's [the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final] a big deal in Ireland, where Gaelic games are the national sport, but the problem for the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) is that no-one outside the country, save for committed expatriates, gives a fig."
  40. "History of Jamaica". Jamaican Embassy, Washington. http://www.embassyofjamaica.org/ABOUThistory.htm. İstifadə tarixi: 21 July 2008. "The legacy of Britain also lives on in Jamaica in many ways [...] the game of cricket is the national sport."
  41. "What Is Sumo?". Kids Web Japan sponsored by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. http://web-japan.org/kidsweb/virtual/sumo/sumo01.html. İstifadə tarixi: 30 April 2012.
  42. Moenig, Udo (Apr 10, 2015). Taekwondo: From a Martial Art to a Martial Sport. Routledge, 52. "As a result, taekwondo's status as a largely private undertaking changed in 1971, when it was upgraded to the 'national sport' of Korea."
  43. "Nacionālie sporta veidi..." (lv). http://www.nra.lv/zinas/27398-nacionalie-sporta-veidi.htm. İstifadə tarixi: 15 November 2009.
  44. Adamkus, Valdas (28 July 2005). "Address at Charles University, Prague". President of Lithuania official website. http://www.president.lt/en/news.full/5829. İstifadə tarixi: 24 July 2008. "Lithuania is a country that loves basketball. It is our national sport and we are proud to be reigning European Champions."[ölü keçid]
  45. Winn, Luke (15 August 2011). "Lithuania Calling". Sports Illustrated. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1189174/index.htm. İstifadə tarixi: 24 August 2011. "Basketball is the only sport the 3.2 million Lithuanians truly care about—it's their second religion, after Catholicism—and their success is proportionately stunning."
  46. "Madagascar take Sevens honours". http://www.irb.com/newsmedia/regional/newsid=53025.html. İstifadə tarixi: 24 July 2012.
  47. "14-place jump for Madagascar". http://www.planetrugby.com/story/0,25883,3891_7884390,00.html. İstifadə tarixi: 24 July 2012.
  48. Richards, Alexandra.Mauritius: Rodrigues, Réunion. Bradt Travel Guides, 2009, p.90
  49. A wrestling competition dedicated to the Wonder of Mongolian National Wrestling
  50. Mongolian Embassy in the USA
  51. "Sport, Fitness and Leisure". New Zealand Official Yearbook. Statistics New Zealand. 2000. http://www2.stats.govt.nz/domino/external/web/nzstories.nsf/0/479c4ffcbb884149cc256b1f00001198?OpenDocument. İstifadə tarixi: 21 July 2008. "Traditionally New Zealanders have excelled in rugby union, which is regarded as the national sport, and track and field athletics."
  52. Mølster, Odd (1996). "Skiing and the Creation of a Norwegian Identity - part 2". News of Norway, issue 2. Norwegian Embassy, Washington. http://www.norway.org/News/archive/1996/199602ski.htm. İstifadə tarixi: 21 July 2008. "the national sport could become a fine weapon in time of war. In 1943, Norway's resistance movement won an epochal victory – on skis, of course"
  53. Berglund, Nina (20 February 2006). "Few cheers for Norway". Aftenposten. http://www.aftenposten.no/english/sports/article1228843.ece. İstifadə tarixi: 21 July 2008. "The scoreboard shows how the Norwegians placed, a performance considered much too poor in a country where cross-country skiing is a national sport."
  54. "Sport in Pakistan". http://www.topendsports.com/world/countries/pakistan.htm. İstifadə tarixi: 6 October 2012.
  55. "Pakistan's Olympic humiliation in national sport". http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-19182961. İstifadə tarixi: 2014-07-09.
  56. "PNG vow to upset World Cup odds". Rugby League (Federación Peruana de Frontón). 15 October 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/rugby_league/7671217.stm. İstifadə tarixi: 3 July 2009. "But it would still be one of the biggest shocks in World Cup history if Papua New Guinea - the only country to have rugby league as its national sport - were to qualify for the last four."
  57. "PNG seal 2010 Four Nations place". BBC. 1 November 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/rugby_league/8336567.stm.
  58. "Paleta-Frontón". Club Regatas Lima. Club Regatas Lima. 31 August 2009. http://www.clubregatas.org.pe/historia/Paleta.htm. İstifadə tarixi: 31 August 2009.
  59. 59,0 59,1 "Russian bandy players blessed for victory at world championship in Kazan". Tatar-Inform. 21 January 2011. http://eng.tatar-inform.ru/news/2011/01/21/33986/. İstifadə tarixi: 31 August 2009.
  60. "Oina - sportul naţional uitat" (Romanian). Adevărul Holding. 18 September 2010. http://www.historia.ro/exclusiv_web/actualitate/articol/oina-sportul-national-uitat. İstifadə tarixi: 21 November 2012. "Dar nici deciziile luate de autorităţile comuniste nu au salvat sportul naţional românesc de la uitare."
  61. [http://www.banatskesore.com/istorijat-sora February 2015 "Səhv: {{Cite web istifadə edərkən}} no |title= specified"]. http://www.banatskesore.com/istorijat-sora February 2015.
  62. "Alex Salmond quote". Sport Scotland. 31 August 2009. http://www.sportscotland.org.uk/ChannelNavigation/News/TopicNavigation/Other+press+releases/articles/First+Minister+celebrates+Scotlands+golf+world+champions+as+new+figures+show+big+increase+in+youngst.htm. İstifadə tarixi: 25 October 2010.
  63. 63,0 63,1 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1754-9469.2007.tb00118.x/abstract
  64. "Ata Sporu - Güreş". Alaturka.info. http://www.alaturka.info/tr/akdeniz-boelgesi/spor-ve-eglence/ata-sporu-gueres.html. İstifadə tarixi: 31 December 2009. [ölü keçid]
  65. "Ata Sporu - Cirit". Kalem.biz. http://www.kalem.biz/yazi.asp?islem=yazidetay&id=1621&db=1&konusu=Ata%20Sporu%20Cirit. İstifadə tarixi: 31 December 2009.
  66. "ICC Members: Turks and Caicos Islands". International Cricket Council. http://www.icc-cricket.com/the-icc/icc_members/profile.php?countryCode=ICC_AFFILIATE_MEMBERS_TCISLANDS. İstifadə tarixi: 7 October 2012.
  67. Duquette, Jerold J. (1999). Regulating the National Pastime: Baseball and Antitrust. Greenwood, 104. ISBN 0-275-96535-X. 21 July 2008 tarixində istifadə olunub. “Baseball justified its privileged legal status by citing the special nature and cultural significance of America's national pastime.”
  68. Schrag, Myles (2003). "Baseball as National Pastime Revisted: And a Little Town Shall Lead Them", in Peter Carino: Baseball/literature/culture: Essays, 1995-2001. McFarland, Chp.13 p.140. ISBN 0-7864-1643-2. “Tradition – that quality so instrumental in elevating baseball to its century-old status as national pastime— has become less important”
  69. Gmelch, George (2006-01-01). Baseball Without Borders: The International Pastime, 308. 2014-07-09 tarixində istifadə olunub.
  70. Gmelch, George (2006-01-01). Baseball Without Borders: The International Pastime, 308. 2014-07-09 tarixində istifadə olunub.
  71. Aponte, Pedro Rafael (2008). The Invention of the National in Venezuelan Art Music, 1920--1960 (UMI:3349149), 56. “Since it was first introduced in the country, baseball has been recognized in Venezuela as the national sport”
  72. Harris, John (Summer 2006). "(Re)Presenting Wales: National Identity and Celebrity in the Postmodern Rugby World" Nəşr edən: North American Association for the Study of Welsh Culture and History. North American Journal of Welsh Studies 6 (2). İstifadə tarixi: 14 July 2008. “rugby used to be the undisputed national sport of Wales [...] Rugby Union’s assumed position as ”the national game” has often been questioned on the basis that it is predominantly a game played and followed in South Wales.”